History of Erbil
Erbil is the oldest continuously-inhabited city of the world. Its name was mentioned in the historic writings around the year 2300 B.C., as the name of a town full of life, which is a Sumerian property. According to the Sumerian writings, assist clear from Sumerian territory in king showlyky writing who is belong to third Ur trace around 2000 B.C the name of the town at that time was “Urbiliom”. The Sumerians where the first people to appear in Mesopotamia and until now, the scientists still not definitely agree on their origin. There are quite many heratiges whithin Erbil indicating the existance of previous civilization, Shanader Cave is one of such example reflecting life existance seens 100,000 years ago, the skeleton found in Shanader Cave goes back to 45,000 years as it was kept in Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad. It is known so far that the Sumerians are not Semitic, but it is not established whether they are of Caucasian or Mongol origin. Most historians confirm their exodus from Kurdistan (Northern Mesopotamia: current north of Iraq) towards the sedimentary plain in South Iraq, where they erected cities and built the first civilizations ever in human history. In the second half of the third millennium B.C., the Acadians mentioned the name of Erbil as “Urbil”, whereas the Assyrians have used the name “Arba ilo” meaning “the four gods”.
During the Iranian empire as it was recorded within ancient Persian records As Arbira whereas Greek recoded the name as Erbilla, and Erbilas and Erbilease. During this period Greek and Romanian at the time of Alexander The great 331 A.C. they named Erbilla in reference to historic war at around ERBIL between Alexsander the Great and Dariush the King. The town name was recorded by Arab and Muslims historian as Arbil meaning the Green Land. Kurds refer to this town as Hawler and kholer which mean the holly sun area. There are many explanation and argument about the different between the word Erbil and Hawler
Erbil and its subordinates gave many scientists, historians, and clerics’ knowledgeable affairs of religion, law, poets, statesmen and politicians. One of the most prominent figures that belong to Erbil is the renowned legendary Islamic leader Salahaddin Al-Ayyubi (1337- 1193) whose forefathers have long lived in the village of Dwen located north Erbil. In the latest part of the Ottoman epoch, Erbil was part of the state of Shehrazur, which had Kirkuk for center. Then it became part of the Prefecture of Mosul.
The city of Erbil and the plain next to it have always been an important part of the states that were erected by the peoples of Zagros, that is, the Hurrians (Khurrites), Metannians, Guttians, Kassites, Medians, Urartians and others. A lively part of the empires that were constituted in the East, West, or South of the region, thus Erbil has been over fifty centuries a living and inhabited city. Sometimes it spread wide, far from the castle, witnessing construction, trade, political and administrative authority; and sometimes it shrank to the size of the castle, which has been the support that protected the city from fading away despite the difficulties along history.
Erbil is a regional capital since 1974 and a capital of Federal Iraqi Kurdistan since 1992. Currently, it bears between the essence of a rich past and a bright present. During 2014 Erbil has been chosen as the title of the capital of tourism in Arab World.
In 1919, Erbil became a Governorate under the British mandate. Then, in 1923, Mr. Ahmed Othman was appointed the first Governor of Erbil. After the foundation of the State of Iraq, Erbil was detached between the two Rivers (Zab) from the County of Kirkuk, and the Prefecture of Erbl (Erbil) was formed as one of the Governorates of Iraqi Kurdistan.